September 30, 2015

A closer look at young Communists in the federal election

Special to RY

Rebel Youth takes a closer look at four of the seven young Communists in the federal election, their ridings and why they're running. All are members of the Young Communist League and running for the Communist Party of Canada.

Hochelaga, Marianne Breton Fontaine

Hochelaga is a poor riding in the east of Montreal including the Olympic stadium. Once a working class area home to the famous Quebec folk singer La Bolduc, the area was hit hard by deindustrialization and factory closings. It has been held by the Bloc and, most recently, the NDP and provincially Quebec Solidaire is a serious contender.

September 23, 2015

Harper creates refugees and spreads racism

A rally outside Immigration minister Chris Alexander's
office in Ajax, Ontario.
Here Rebel Youth publishes an interview with Drew Garvie, the Communist candidate in Toronto's University-Rosedale riding and General Secretary of the YCL. The raw interview was with a UofT student publication.

What initiatives do you think U of T students and administration should be taking on the Syrian Refugee Crisis?

Students and the University of Toronto should raise their voices and demand Canada welcome refugees, that we end Canada’s participation in the wars that create these crises, and that we dump the Harper government as a first step towards a country with a democratic immigration policy and a foreign policy of peace and disarmament.

September 18, 2015

RY’s Class Enemy of the Fall: Oily Politicians

From "Class Enemy" series - Rebel Youth Issue 19

There is perhaps no better contemporary example of the confines of democracy under capitalism as demonstrated by the current “debate” over the tar sands and pipelines in Canada. Climate change is a massive crisis that has started to effect people around the world. Scientists are unanimous in proclaiming that greenhouse gas emissions need to be immediately slashed if we are to avoid total devastation to the environment and to people. Why is it then that the major party leaders are unanimous in denying that Canada needs to stop developing the tar sands and the pipeline infrastructure designed to expand this particularly destructive extraction method? Let’s take a quick look at the denial being promoted by Steve, Tommy and Justin:

September 17, 2015

Refugee Crisis is a Crisis of Imperialism

TJ Petrowski
The widely circulated photo of Aylan Kurdi, a three-year-old Syrian boy whose body was found on a beach in Turkey and whose family was “making a final, desperate attempt to flee to relatives in Canada even though their asylum application had been rejected” by the Harper Government, has caused widespread outrage and forced Western leaders to acknowledge that there is a “refugee crisis”.

In Canada, the leaders of the Liberal and New Democratic parties have used the news of Kurdi’s tragic death, along with the deaths of his five-year-old brother and his mother, to criticize the Harper Government’s response to the Syrian refugee crisis. Trudeau and Mulcair have called on Canada to accept more Syrian refugees, while the Harper Government, with its lust for military action, insists on more illegal bombing raids in Syria and Iraq as the solution to the surge of Syrian refugees.
The real tragedy is the refusal of Western leaders to acknowledge the cause of the refugee crisis – Western imperialism’s genocidal and never ending wars on the people of the Middle East, Central Asia, and Africa.

September 16, 2015

The Dialectical Progression of History

Kurt Biray

History is accumulative. Our history is the most pivotal determinant of our future.  In other words, what happens now is directly interconnected to what will occur in the near and long-term future. The rhetorical concepts of “fate” and “destiny” are simply non-existent in a world that is governed by the principles of science. This applies to the natural sciences but also characterizes the social sciences as the dynamics of political and economic systems throughout the globe are highly dependent on history itself. 

History is integral for understanding our increasingly intricate society. It lays the foundation for explaining certain trends and events that we witness throughout our lives and therefore, can be fully utilized to predict and shape our own future and the future of our planet. When speaking of sociological disturbances and distributions of wealth or even modern-day political and economic systems, history plays an essential role in explaining humanity's societal and economic development and progress.

September 8, 2015

Young Communist candidates demanding fundamental change

Special to RY

7 members of the Young Communist League of Canada are currently running in the federal election. Here RY looks at these candidates for the Communist Party of Canada who are demanding fundamental change.

August 21, 2015

Young Communists mobilize for Federal elections

YCLers who are currently running as Communist Party candidates.
Special to Rebel Youth

The Young Communist League of Canada (YCL) has started hitting the pavement for the upcoming Federal elections. Preparations started in the spring of this year at the YCL’s Central Committee meeting, which outlined the political context of this election: “The future for youth under the current system looks dismal: unemployment, underemployment, debt, environmental destruction, war and militarism, and an eroding democracy.” While this paints a bleak picture, the YCL’s message is that it is possible to reverse the situation through struggle, and that the Federal election “marks an important opportunity for the YCL-LJC in their struggle for peace, jobs, the environment and democracy, as well as the broader struggle for socialism.”

July 22, 2015

WFDY condemns the massacre of youth and students in Suruc, Turkey

Photographs of some of the young people that were murdered
on July 20th, 2015.
Special to RY

On July 20th, members of the Socialist Youth Associations Federation (SGDF) were in Suruc, Turkey on their way to help reconstruct a museum in the Kurdish controlled town of Kobane. Kobane, in Syria, has withstood fierce attacks from ISIS. SGDF members were at a cultural centre having breakfast with Kurdish organizations when the suicide bombing occurred.

The World Federation of Democratic Youth (WFDY), a federation of anti-imperialist youth organizations from around the world, has released a statement condemning the recent murder of at least 30 youth.

July 21, 2015

Irish Water Charges Revolt – A young Communist’s view on the ground

Communist Party of Ireland and Connolly Youth Movement
march against water privatization
Graham Harrington

The Irish working-class, previously believed to be cowed into submission by the ruling class, has finally stood up. We have unified under the cause of one word: NO!

No to water charges! No to austerity! No to corruption!

Since the property bubble exploded in 2008/2009 austerity has become our reality. The “Celtic Tiger” years are but now a memory. Neo-liberalism has destroyed us. The bankers gambled our money until the system popped. The bankers debt, in the hundreds of billions, was socialized by the Irish state, the money for paying off their debts was taken from the Irish taxpayer. Cuts in healthcare, education and in public services destroyed families and threw huge amounts of people into poverty, homelessness, and an epoch of darkness. In response, the Communist party called for the complete repudiation of this debt. It was not sovereign debt. It was not borrowed to pay for schools, hospitals or to develop infrastructure. It was taken out to cover the losses of the bankers and financial speculators.

July 14, 2015

Portuguese Communist Party leader speaks about upcoming election while in Paris

Crowd participating in the June 6th mobilization of the
Communist Party to launch the ongoing election campaign
 Adrien Welsh

“Eles comem tudo e não deixam nada/ They eat everything and leave nothing” says the song by Zeca Afonso. The singer-songwriter also wrote “Grândola Vila Morena”, which became an anthem during the Portuguese April Revolution. These words are probably the best description of the situation the people of Portugal are currently living in. The title of this song is “Os Vampiros/ The Vampires”, referring at the time it was written to the capitalists who kept Portugal under the rule of a fascist dictatorship until 1974.

Although the country was able to overthrow the Estado Novo regime and adopt one of the most progressive constitutions in Europe (thanks largely to the Communists), Portugal, along with Greece, is one of the European countries most affected by austerity programs imposed by the Troika. The European Union, the European Central Bank and the International Monetary Fund are the new vampires who “eat everything but don’t leave anything” for the people.

More than 128,000 people from Portugal chose to leave their country in 2013, and their number keeps increasing year after year. More than 1.5 million Portuguese have decided to live in France. That is about 15% of the total population currently living inside Portugal.

July 6, 2015

Ecuador: between "The Matrix" and "Utopia"

Diego Bastidas

“The Matrix is a prison for your mind”
(Morpheus, The Matrix I)

“[…]From Cairo to Quito a new world is forming[…]”
(“Multiviral”, Calle 13)

“Utopia lies at the horizon.
When I draw nearer by two steps,
it retreats two steps.
If I proceed ten steps forward, it
swiftly slips ten steps ahead.
No matter how far I go, I can never reach it.
What, then, is the purpose of utopia?
It is to cause us to advance.”
(About Utopia, Eduardo Galeano)

Over the last two weeks we have been observing how the political situation in Ecuador has been changing as a consequence of the proposal of two Acts (click here for an accurate brief overview). The first Act is called the “Act for the Distribution of Wealth”, which aims to widen wealth distribution through a progressive tax aimed at the biggest fortunes in the country. Serious analysis shows that this is Act only going to affect  2% percent of the population, in other words, those with net worths over 2 million dollars. The working class will not be affected. The second Act aims to stop speculation on land prices, especially when the increase in price is caused by any kind of state action. For example, if the government builds a highway the owners of the land cannot obtain any profit from this decision, because that would be an unjustified enrichment at the public’s expense. The leaders of the opposition have kicked off a strong campaign against these two government initiatives, which have combined protest on the street, a  mass media strategy, threats from  corporations to divest and leave the country, violent acts against supporters of President Correa’s government, blockades of airports on Galapagos Island, and finally, the intention to  blockade Quito´s airport when President Correa arrived home from Europe last month.

July 2, 2015

80 years since the "On to Ottawa Trek"

Special to Rebel Youth

This spring and summer marked the 80th anniversary of the On to Ottawa Trek. Rebel Youth celebrates this militant struggle and ongoing struggles for work and wages. 80 years later capitalist crisis has again been used by a Tory government to attack the working class. Youth unemployment is reaching almost 20% in several major Canadian cities, and the majority of workers (a larger majority for youth and women) are not covered by Employment Insurance. With this in mind, we look back to past victories for inspiration today!

June 29, 2015

Action Alert! Canadians Kevin Neish and Robert Lovelace kidnapped by the Israeli Navy

Freedom Flotilla III participants on the way to Gaza before
the Israeli Navy's piracy
Special to Rebel Youth

Robert Lovelace and Kevin Neish are two Canadians among at least 16 other participants of the "Freedom Flotilla III" who were kidnapped in international waters this morning. The boat they were on, the Swedish "MV Marianne" was carrying humanitarian aid to Gaza, including solar panels and medical equipment.

Robert Lovelace is a retired chief of the Ardoch Algonquin First Nation and an adjunct lecturer at Queen's University. Kevin Neish is a retired marine biologist from Victoria, BC, whose lifelong solidarity work has taken him to Cuba, Colombia, Central America and Palestine. According to his blog which has detailed the journey so far, his motivation is that "In a nutshell, I just don’t like bullies, regardless of their colour,  religion, size, nationality or race." Lovelace has described the situations for Palestinians living in Gaza as living “in the world’s largest Indian reservation”.

June 15, 2015

The Ecuadorian people mobilize against latest coup attempt in South America

Rally welcoming Correa on June 15th
Drew Garvie

On June 15th, thousands of supporters of Ecuador’s “Citizens’ Revolution” convened outside the Plaza Grande in Quito to welcome Ecuadorian President Rafael Correa back to the country. The night before right-wing opponents of the Ecuadorian government made some attempts to block traffic from the airport to prevent Correa’s arrival in Quito. The President was returning from CELAC-EU meetings in Belgium.

Last week, a series of demonstrations occurred, spurred on by support from opposition politicians with ties to Ecuador’s old neo-liberal regime friendly to US interests. The initial pretenses for the protests, was a newly tabled “Wealth Redistribution Law”. The corporate media in the country claimed that the new taxes would negatively impact working class families and small businesses, however the new inheritance taxes being introduced will only have an effect on the wealthiest 2 percent of the population. Telesur has reported on the details of the proposed laws:

June 12, 2015

Work set to end the U.S. economic blockade of Cuba and to strengthen Canada-Cuba relations

Fernando Gonzalez, one of the Cuban Five
 heroes addresses audience in Toronto
Republished from the Canadian Network on Cuba

The Canadian Network on Cuba (CNC) held a very successful 7th Biennial Convention in Toronto from May 30 -31, 2015.  Delegates and alternate delegates from 19 member organizations were joined by observers and invited guests including His Excellency Julio Garmendía Peña, Ambassador of Cuba to Canada, Javier Domokos Ruiz, Toronto Consul General of Cuba and other Cuban diplomats.

The Convention had the distinct honour and privilege of hosting Fernando González Llort, one of the Five Cuban Heroes who had  been imprisoned unjustly in the United States for defending Cuba from terrorist attacks launched from the United States and/or by U.S. citizens and covert agencies and for defending Cuba's right to independence and self-determination.

May 29, 2015

The Fight Against C-51 Continues: Day of Action Saturday, May 30th

Special to RY

As the Senate in Ottawa gets set to vote on Bill C-51, democratic forces in Canada are organizing for a third cross-Canada day of action to take place Saturday, May 30th. The Senate will resume Third Reading proceedings on Tuesday, June 2nd.

The rallies and marches are demanding the government withdraw/repeal C-51, affirm and uphold the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, honour the treaties with First Nations and the Rights of Indigenous People, honour First Nations’ right to be consulted (section 35), and that the government stop racist legislation and fear mongering.

C-51 has rightly been identified as the most serious attack on democratic rights and civil liberties in Canada since the War Measures Act. The Bill would give sweeping new powers to CSIS, effectively legalizing its role as a secret political police.

May 22, 2015

Communist Youth of Chile demand justice for murdered students

Special to RY

On Thursday, May 14th, two Chilean students were shot dead in the city of Valparaiso. The two students, Exequiel Borbaran, 18, and Diego Guzman, 24, were participating along with 160 000 others in mobilizations across the country. Students were demanding the fulfillment of the government of Chile's promise to deliver free, quality, accessible public education at all levels.

Exequiel and Diego were shot by a store owner after attempting to hang a banner at the end of the march. Diego was a member and activist of the Communist Youth of Chile (JJCC), which has a long and proud history of resisting fascism and violence and fighting for a socialist Chile.

May 20, 2015

New Ontario Tory leader fuels campaign of ignorance

Liz Rowley

Originally published in Peoples' Voice newspaper

On May 4th and 5th, 35,000 elementary students – almost 90% - were kept out of school in Brampton and Toronto’s Thorncliffe Park neighbourhood to protest the new sex education curriculum being introduced in health and phys ed classes in September by the provincial government. 

As far as protest organizers are concerned, no sex education is the best education for their kids – and yours too.

The protests are the result of a massive disinformation campaign carried out by Campaign Life, the Christian fundamentalist Rev. Charles McVety, fundamentalists in the South Asian community who are the main targets of this campaign, and organizers for the new leader of the Ontario Conservatives and several of his Queen’s Park caucus.

May 19, 2015

Fighting Chevron in Washington DC

Drew Garvie & Peter Miller

In late April, we, along with three other members of the Young Communist League of Canada, had the honour of attending a historic event in Washington DC. We were part of a caravan of buses leaving from Ontario to attend a rally and conference in solidarity with indigenous peoples in Ecuador fighting the oil giant Chevron.

The place and time of the solidarity events were chosen by Chevron. The corporation has been trying to avoid paying for one of the worst environmental disasters in history, that it created by dumping billions of gallons of toxic sludge in the Ecuadorean Amazon. In 2011, it was ordered to pay $9.5 billion dollars to clean up the mess. Chevron has yet to pay up. There is an ongoing case in Canada where the indigenous plaintiffs could receive justice through assets in Canada. What brought us to Washington, the heart of the leading imperialist power, was the result one of Chevron’s latest dirty tricks it is using to avoid cleaning up its mess. It has decided to take Ecuador to court through the World Bank’s International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes.

May 12, 2015

Brigadistas return home to Canada from Cuba

Brigade & Ailí Labañino after a morning of volunteer work
photo: Denise M.
 Drew Garvie

The 38 participants who traveled to Cuba this month as members of the 23rd Che Guevara Volunteer Work Brigade have returned home to Canada. The annual Brigade, a two-week solidarity tour of the island, is organized by the Canadian Network on Cuba. It’s purpose: to build Canada-Cuba friendship and solidarity, and celebrate the gains of the Revolution, now in its 56th year. This year was especially significant in the broader political context; the hard-won freedom of the five Cuban heroes, and the groundbreaking negotiations taking place between the United States and Cuba.

The Brigade members were a diverse group of activists of all ages, joined together in solidarity with the Cuban people. Members participated from cities across Canada, including Vancouver, Kamloops, Kelowna, Winnipeg, Hamilton, Toronto, Ottawa and Halifax. Some members came as individuals and others as members of organizations involved in Cuba solidarity work across Canada. Several members of the Communist Party of Canada and the Young Communist League attended the tour.

This year, larger international delegations with over 1000 members were present in Cuba to attend the May Day celebrations. Because of this, this year’s Che Brigade was joined by other participants from a variety of countries. A large delegation from Peru and smaller delegations from Chile, Costa Rica, New Zealand, joined the group from Canada. This added to the internationalist flavor of the Brigade and friendships were made with a shared respect of Cuba’s revolution as the foundation.

April 23, 2015

Interview with Marianne Breton Fontaine on Quebec's Anti-Austerity movement

Jane Bouey of "Media Mornings" in Vancouver interviews Marianne Breton Fontaine on the 2015 Quebec student strike and the movement against austerity. Interview is from April 8th, 2015.

Marianne Breton Fontaine is a writer for Jeunesse Militant and Rebel Youth magazines, a longtime member of the YCL-LJC, a leader of the Ligue de la jeunesse communiste du Quebec and a student at UQAM in Montreal.

April 14, 2015

The Union-Pearson Express: Public Transit For The Rich?

David G.

Metrolinx, the Ontario provincial transit agency, has recently unveiled the new Union-Pearson Express (UPE) train which will run from Pearson International Airport to Union Station in Toronto starting in May. This will start a month before the Toronto 2015 Pan-Am Games open which have already caused some controversy for its outlandish overspending problems, fast-tracked development projects leading to gentrification, and the lack of proper infrastructure. The Pan-Am games will cause traffic jams across Toronto which will affect the city's ageing infrastructure. Recently, the capitalist CEOs in charge of the Toronto 2015 Pan-Am games have been caught overspending their budgets, which consists of public money from taxpayers. Money went to paying for expensive limousine rides and purchasing luxuries such as designer shirts. This is one of many controversies that the TO2015 committee has got itself into in recent months.

April 12, 2015

Quebec Anti-Austerity Battle Heating Up

Johan Boyden

Reprinted from People's Voice Newspaper

Mobilizations to stop the austerity measures of Philippe Couillard’s Quebec Liberal government got a boost in late March, after a meeting of the Front Commun, the Common Front of Quebec public sector trade unions. Then the student movement brought over 70,000 protesters into the streets on April 2, its largest mobilization since the 2012 strike.

In late March, the Liberal budget presented by Couillard’s finance minister Carlos Leitao ended any illusions that negotiations could lead to a victory for public sector unions. Calling the budget “austerity at light speed,” and a gift to big business, the labour movement condemned the proposals including a two-year wage freeze. On March 31 the Front Commun concluded further negotiations would be a dead-end and began mobilizing for a strike.

April 10, 2015

Venezuelan Ambassador visits Six Nations

Edward Lovo

I witnessed an historic exchange between the peoples of Six Nations and the Venezuelan ambassador to Canada Wilmer Barrientos. We were warmly welcomed into the longhouse, which few outsiders have set foot in. There was some controversy about this as someone had earlier made the quip who will we invite next—the Israeli ambassador? Thankfully, we had enough of their trust. To keep their trust it was enough to exclude media, the RCMP, OPP, and CSIS, and we had the vote of confidence of a trusted community member

As one of the Six Nations spokespersons explained a profound pain of oppression breeds mistrust of outsiders. The speaker then acknowledged that the ambassador paid a visit to the Six Nations before approaching Ottawa, an unprecedented first in recognition of their land. The speaker shared some history of Six Nations with the ambassador, explaining to him the Two Row Wampum which few Canadians are familiar with.

March 26, 2015

"Precarious and poor" on strike at UofT and York U

Sam Hammond

Reprinted from People's Voice Newspaper

At the end of February and beginning the first week of March, approximately 10,000 academic workers went on strike at two of Canada’s largest universities. They are represented by two CUPE Locals, 3902 and 3903, who represent Units of Teaching Assistants, Graduate Assistants and Contract Faculty at the University of Toronto and York University respectively. Nine thousand are still on strike.        

The issues and responses at both universities, York with about 4000 strikers and U of T with about 6000, are so close that they can be detailed in the same general overview.  A good place to start is with the words of Erin Black, Union Chair at U of T, “We are poor and precarious and need improvement in our standard of living”.  This is by no means an overstatement but what analyses will show is probably an understatement of the precarious existence of Teaching Assistants (TAs), Graduate Assistants (GAs) and Contract Faculty (CFs) at most universities.

March 24, 2015

Young Communists of Venezuela condemn US aggression

Against the imperialist aggression - Unity, solidarity and struggle

Statement of the Communist Youth of Venezuela (JCV) – National Executive Committee of the Central Council

The Communist Youth of Venezuela (JCV) expresses its strongest condemnation to the executive order signed by the president Barack Obama, last March 9th, when he declared a “National Emergency” after describing Venezuela as an “unusual and extraordinary threat to the National Security and Foreign Policy of the United States”.

The interventionist policy of the US and European imperialist poles against Venezuela has intensified during the last months: unilateral sanctions against the state of Venezuela and recurrent statements by senior US officials and European Parliament have highlighted the development of an international conspiracy against the Bolivarian Process.

March 16, 2015

The Attack on Muslim Women

Mariam Ahmad

As we have witnessed, Islamophobia is on the rise. Following the events of Charlie Hebdo, we’ve seen that attacks on Muslims, and especially Muslim women, have gotten worse. In Canada we have seen bills like C-51 (the “Anti-Terrorism Act”), and Bill S-7 (“Zero Tolerance for Barbaric Cultural Practices”) tabled with shockingly large support from the Canadian population, even though they clearly target minorities, specifically Muslims. This is after an intense campaign of Islamophobia by the corporate media and pro-war politicians that goes back decades. This ideological offensive has gotten hotter in the last six months as Canada joined the latest invasion of Iraq. More and more, Muslim women are put in danger just because they choose to observe their religious rites.

In Quebec, a Muslim woman named Hanady Saad was walking along René-Lévesque Boulevard in Montreal with her friends, when a stranger yelled at her. “...Terrorist, go back home, we don’t want to see your hijab. You have to take it off,’” Afterwards Saad said. “I’m a human, you know? I have the right to wear the veil. I have the right, like everybody, to be who I am”.  Why aren’t governments taking steps to address such a hostile environment for its citizens? Why are there no proactive steps taken to curb hate crimes against Muslim people?

March 11, 2015

Momentum builds for cross-Canada actions against Bill C-51

Special to Rebel Youth

Right across Canada, momentum is building against Bill C-51. People are discovering what this bill really means. Contrary to the stated purpose of the bill; “fighting terrorism”, the legislation creates new police state laws, attacks the civil liberties and democratic rights of everyone in Canada, and elevates CSIS to a police force with sweeping new powers that can and will be directed against environmentalists, Indigenous communities, trade unionists, and other people’s movements. C-51 opens the door to a suspension of Habeas Corpus and to the collective punishment of communities based on racism or political ideology.

Rebel Youth helped to sound the alarm early on. Now resistance has grown to include unions, civil liberties organizations, Indigenous groups, anti-Tar Sands activists, most political parties besides the Conservatives and the Liberals, and even some sections of the corporate owned media.

This Saturday, March 14th, major actions are planned in more than 40 cities across Canada. This cross-Canada day of action was initiated by Lead Now, Open Media, the BC Government Employees Union as well as the BC Civil Liberties Association, but the list of participants and endorsing organizations keeps growing! The Communist Party of Canada and the Young Communist League of Canada support the call to action and will be taking part in demonstrations across the country.

March 8, 2015


Róisín Lyder

Rebel Youth presents 10 biographies of revolutionary women!

Angela Davis

“The idea of freedom is inspiring. But what does it mean? If you are free in a political sense but have no food, what’s that? The freedom to starve?”

Angela Davis first became involved in the black liberation and communist movements in the late 1960s as a professor at the University of California Los Angeles. As an outspoken critic of US imperialism and white supremacy, Davis was targeted for persecution and was imprisoned in 1970 on charges of murder and kidnapping. After a massive mobilization across the world demanded her freedom, Davis was acquitted in 1972. She has continued her political work to this day, as well as pioneering theoretical work on the relationship between race, class, and gender and on incarceration. Lefties today are sometimes still spotted sporting a nostalgic ‘Free Angela!’ button.

March 7, 2015

Women's History in the Soviet Union

IWD 1932: "A day of rebellion by working
women against kitchen slavery!"
Elizabeth Rowley Communist Party of Canada (Ontario) Leader
Transcribed by Jenna Amirault and Justin Ferguson
From a lecture at the 2013 YCL-LJC Women’s School

Well comrades, let me say a few words about women in the Soviet Union. The first thing to say about the Soviet Union is that it was the first socialist country in the world. Before the Soviet Union the ideas of socialism, of a working class state and country that was ruled by the working class in their own class interest and where big corporations and so on didn’t exist and where there was no monarchy and where feudalism was abolished and so on, it was all theoretical before 1917. When the Great October Socialist Revolution actually happened it had a huge impact, not only, obviously, in the Soviet Union but worldwide because it was the first time there was a little piece of territory that socialists around the world could point to and say ‘there, that’s what socialism looks like, that’s the experience, that’s what’s happening to people in that country and that’s what’s happening to women in that country!’

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